Editions & Translations

For evaluations of all editions and translations from 1864-2015, see Jane Beal, “Materials: Classroom Texts and Instructor’s Library,” in Approaches to Teaching the Middle English Pearl, ed. Jane Beal and Mark Bradshaw Busbee (New York: MLA, forthcoming).

Note that in all entries below with links, the location of the link site is indicated with an abbreviation: AMZ = Amazon.com; CMEPV = Corpus of Medieval English Prose and Verse at the University of Michigan; IA = Internet Archive (free texts in multiple e-forms, including EPUB and Kindle); TEAMS = Middle English Texts Series at University of Rochester; Web = available online as webpage or site.

“Ry3twysly quo con rede,
He loke on bok and be awayed”

Pearl, lines 709-10


British Library Cotton Nero A.x (BL Catalogue Description). Web.


The Cotton Nero A.x Project (hosted by the University of Calgary). Web.

The Pearl Manuscript, with transcription and translation by Malcolm Andrew and Ronald Waldron (The Folio Society, 2016). Print.


Anderson, J. J. and A. C. Cawley, eds. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, Cleanness, and Patience. Rev. ed. London: Everyman, 1996. Print. AMZ

Andrew, Malcolm, and Ronald Waldron, eds. The Poems of the Pearl Manuscript: Pearl, Cleanness, Patience, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. 5th ed. Exeter, England: U of Exeter P, 2007. Print. AMZ

Chase, Stanley P., ed. The Pearl”: The Text of the Fourteenth Century English Poem. Bowdoin ed. Ed. Members of the Chaucer Course in Bowdoin College. Boston: Humphries, 1932. Print. Ebay.

Gordon, E. V. and J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Pearl. New York: Oxford UP, 1953. Print. CMEPV

Moorman, Charles, ed., ed. The Works of the Gawain-Poet. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1977. Print. AMZ (Preview in Google Books)

Morris, Richard, ed. Early English Alliterative Poems in the West-Midland Dialect of the Fourteenth Century. EETS, OS 1. 1864. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford UP, 1869. Print. IA

Osgood, Charles G., Jr., ed. The Pearl”: A Middle English Poem. Boston: Heath, 1906. Print. IA

Putter, Ad and Myra Stokes, eds., The Works of the Gawain-Poet (Penguin Classics, 2014). AMZ

Stanbury, Sarah, ed. Pearl. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute, 2001. Print.

—, ed. “Introduction.” Pearl. TEAMS: Middle English Text Series. Web. TEAMS

Editions or Translations in Anthologies

Conlee, John, ed., “Pearl,” Middle English Debate Poetry: A Critical Anthology. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State UP, 1991. Print. AMZ

Dunn, Charles W. and Edward T. Byrnes, eds., “Pearl,” Middle English Literature. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College, 1973. Print. AMZ (Preview in Google Books, click on p. 339)

Garbáty, Thomas J., ed., “Pearl,” Medieval English Literature. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1984. Print. AMZ

Haskell, Ann Sullivan, ed., “Pearl,” A Middle English Anthology. 1969. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1985. Print. (Preview in Google Books, click on p. 278)

Mossé, Fernand and James A. Walker, eds. “Description of the New Jerusalem from Pearl.” Handbook of Middle English. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins UP, 1952, 1968, 1991, 2000, 2008. Print. AMZ

Kenneth Sisam and J.R.R. Tolkien, eds., “Lines 361-612 from Pearl,” A Middle English Reader and Vocabulary (1921-22, rpt. 2005). See Tolkien’s Vocabulary. IA

Stone, Brian, trans. Medieval English Verse. New York: Penguin, 1964. Print. (Modern English only). AMZ

Williams, David, ed. and trans. “Pearl,” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Medieval Period, 3rd. edition, BABL Online only (2015), 1-37. BABL Online

Dual-Language Editions

Armitage, Simon. Pearl: A New Verse Translation. New York and London: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 2016. Print / ebook. AMZ.

Beal, Jane, ed. and trans. Pearl: A Medieval Masterpiece in Middle English and Modern English. In progress.

Crawford, John and Andrew Hoyem, ed. and trans. “The Pearl.” San Francisco: Grabhorn-Hoyem, 1967. Print.

de Ford, Sara, ed. and trans. Anonymous: “The Pearl. Crofts Classics. New York: AHM, 1967. Print. AMZ

Finch, Casey, ed. The Complete Works of the Pearl Poet. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993. Print. AMZ

Gollancz, Israel, ed. and trans. Pearl”: An English Poem of the Fourteenth Century with a Modern Rendering. 1891. Rev. ed. London: Privately Pr., 1897. Print. IA

—, ed. and trans. “Pearl”: An English Poem of the XIVth Century; with a Modern Rendering, Together with Boccaccio’s Olympia. London: Chatto and Windos, 1921. Print. IA

Gould, David, trans. Pearl of Great Price: A Literary Translation of the Middle English Pearl. Lanham, MD: UP of America, 2012. Print. AMZ

Hillmann, Mary Vincent, ed. and trans. The Pearl”: Mediaeval Text with a Literal Translation and Interpretation. 1961. Rev. ed. Notre Dame, IN: U of Notre Dame P, 1967. Print. See also Hillmann’s Pearl. AMZ

Stanton, Bill, trans. This Being a Translation of in Verse of the Middle English Poem Pearl by an Unknown Poet. York, UK: U of York, 1995. Print.

—. This Being a Translation of in Verse of the Middle English Poem Pearl by an Unknown Poet. W.G. Stanton, 1995. Web.

Vantuono, William, trans. Pearl: An Edition with Verse Translation. Notre Dame, IN: U of Notre Dame P, 1995. Print. See also Vantuono’s Omnibus Edition. AMZ

Watts, Victor, trans. Pearl. Ed. David Fuller and Corinne Saunders. London: Enitharmon, 2005. Print. AMZ

English Translations

Borroff, Marie, trans. The Gawain Poet: Complete Works; Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Patience, Cleanness, Pearl, Saint Erkenwald. New York: Norton, 2011. Print. AMZ

—, trans. “Pearl”: A New Verse Translation. New York: Norton, 1977. Print.

—, trans. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Patience, and Pearl: Verse Translations. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.

Chase, Stanley P., trans. The Pearl”: The Fourteenth Century English Poem Rendered in Modern Verse. New York: Oxford UP, 1932. Print.

Coulton, George Gordon, trans. Pearl”: A Fourteenth-Century Poem. London: David Nutt, 1906. Print. IA

Draycott, Jane, trans. Pearl. Manchester, GBR: Carcanet, 2011. Print. AMZ See Draycott excerpt.

Gardner, John, trans. The Complete Works of the Gawain-Poet: In a Modern English Version with a Critical Introduction. 1965. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1975. Print. AMZ

Jewett, Sophie, trans. “The Pearl”: A Modern Version in the Metre of the Original. New York: Crowell, 1908. Print. IA

Kirtlan, Ernest J. B., trans. “Pearl”: A Poem of Consolation; Rendered into Modern English Verse. London: Kelly, 1918. Print.

Mead, Marian, trans. “The Pearl”: An English Vision-Poem of the Fourteenth Century Done into Modern VersePortland, ME: Mosher, 1908. Print. AMZ

Mitchell, S. Weir, Pearl: Rendered into Modern English Verse (Portland, ME: Thomas Bird Mosher, 1908). Print. HathiTrust

Osgood, Charles G., Jr., trans. “The Pearl”: An Anonymous English Poem of the Fourteenth Century, Rendered in Prose. Princeton: Privately printed, 1907. Print.

Stone, Brian, trans. Medieval English Verse. New York: Penguin, 1964. Print. AMZ

Tolkien, J. R. R., trans. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo. Boston: Houghton, 1975. Print. AMZ

Watson, Giles, trans. Pearl. Lulu Press, 2014. Print.

Weston, Jessie L., trans. Romance, Vision and Satire: English Alliterative Poems of the Fourteenth Century. New York: Houghton, 1912. Print. IA

Williams, Margaret, trans. The Pearl-Poet: His Complete Works. 1967. New York: Vintage, 1970. Print. AMZ

Foreign Language Translations

Dalma, D. trans. “De Pearel”: in Visioen ut it Middel-Ingelsk Oerbrocht yn it Nij-Fysk. Dokkum, Neth.: Kamminga, 1938. Print. (Frisian)

Decker, Otto, trans. “Die Perle”: Das Mittelenglische Gedicht in Freier Metrischer Übertragung. Schwerin, Ger.: Sengebusch, 1916. (German)

Giacherini, Enrico, trans. Perla. 2nd ed. Biblioteca medievale 9. (Parma: Luna Editrice, 1989, 1995). Print.

Guidi, Augusto, trans. 1966. (Italian)

Miyata, Takeshi, trans. “Shiratama: A Japanese Translation of Pearl. Kobe: Konan U Bungakukai, 1954. (complete Japanese translation)

Naruse, Masaiku, ed. and trans., “A Study of the Middle English Pearl, Part I: A Text Newly Edited with Japanese Translation.” JCulS 6 (1971): 133-85, 221-88. (ME text with Japanese translation and textual notes)

Olivero, Federico, ed. and trans. “La Perla”: Poemetto in “Middle English.” Bologna, IT: Zanichelli, 1936. Print. (Italian)

Sekigawa, Sakyo, trans. “Akoyadama: A Japanese Translation of Pearl (Extracts).” An Anthology of English Lyrics. Ed. Konosuke Hinatsu. Tokyo: Kawadeshobo, 1952. Pp. 6-12. (Japanese translation of lines 1-4 and 100-01)

Terasawa, Yoshio, trans. “Shinju: A Japanese Translation of Pearl.” Ancient and Medieval: Anthology of Great Poetry of the World: Ancient and Medieval, Vol. I. Tokyo: Heibon-sha, 1960. Pp. 316-33 (complete Japanese translation)


Eller, Vernard. “A Pearl… For the Brokenhearted: Translated and with a Commentary by Vernard Eller.” The Vernard Eller Collection. House Church Central, n.d. Web.

—. “A Pearl… For the Brokenhearted: Translated and with a Commentary by Vernard Eller.” Washington DC: The UP of America, 1983. Print.

Glossator 9: Pearl (2015).

Zatta, Jane. “Pearl: An Introduction.” The ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies. 2000. Web. (currently unavailable)


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