My co-edited volume, Approaches to Teaching the Middle English Pearl, is now in print from the Modern Language Association.
The moving, richly allegorical poem Pearl was written in Middle English by the anonymous who likely also penned Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. In it, a man in a garden, grieving the loss of a beloved pearl, dreams of the Pearl-Maiden, who appears across a stream. She teaches him the nature of innocence, God’s grace, meekness, and purity. Though granted a vision of the New Jerusalem by the Pearl-Maiden, the dreamer is pained to discover that he cannot cross the stream himself and join her in bliss—at least not yet. This extraordinary poem is a door into late medieval poetics and Catholic piety.
Part 1 of this volume, “Materials,” introduces instructors to the many resources available for teaching the canonical yet challenging Pearl, including editions, translations, and scholarship on the poem as well as its historical context. The essays in part 2, “Approaches,” offer instructors tools for introducing students to critical issues associated with the poem, such as its authorship, sources and analogues, structure and language, and relation to other works of its time. Contributors draw on interdisciplinary approaches to outline ways of teaching Pearl in a variety of classroom contexts.
Table of Contents
- With many thanks to my co-editor, our editors at the MLA, and all of our contributors!
The Signifying Power of Pearl
by Jane Beal
This book enhances our understanding of the exquisitely beautiful, fourteenth-century, Middle English dream vision poem Pearl. Situating the study in the contexts of medieval literary criticism and contemporary genre theory, Beal argues that the poet intended Pearl to be read at four levels of meaning and in four corresponding genres: literally, an elegy; spiritually, an allegory; morally, a consolation; and anagogically, a revelation. The book addresses cruxes and scholarly debates about the poem’s genre and meaning, including key questions that have been unresolved in Pearl studies for over a century:
- What is the nature of the relationship between the Dreamer and the Maiden?
- What is the significance of allusions to Ovidian love stories and the use of liturgical time in the poem?
- How does avian symbolism, like that of the central symbol of the pearl, develop, transform, and add meaning throughout the dream vision?
- What is the nature of God portrayed in the poem, and how does the portrayal of the Maiden’s intimate relationship to God, her spiritual marriage to the Lamb, connect to the poet’s purpose in writing?
Noting that the poem is open to many interpretations, Beal also considers folktale genre patterns in Pearl, including those drawn from parable, fable, and fairy-tale. The conclusion considers Pearl in the light of modern psychological theories of grieving and trauma. This book makes a compelling case for re-reading Pearl and recognizing the poem’s signifying power. Given the ongoing possibility of new interpretations, it will appeal to those who specialize in Pearl as well as scholars of Middle English, Medieval Literature, Genre Theory, and Literature and Religion.
God and the Gawain-Poet:
Theology and Genre
by Cecilia A. Hatt
(Boydell & Brewer, 2015)
Pearl: A New Verse Translation
(Liveright, An Imprint of W.W. Norton, 2016)
Pearl: A New Verse Translation
(Faber & Faber, 2016)
A Review in the New Yorker
The Folio Society’s
Pearl Manuscript Facsimile Edition
with transcription and translation Malcolm Andrew and Ronald Waldron
Epistemological Perspective of the Pearl-Poet
by Piotyr Spyra
(Ashgate Press, 2014)
- Original and engaging, this study presents the four anonymous poems found in the Cotton Nero MS – Pearl, Cleanness, Patience, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight – as a composite text with a continuous narrative. While it is widely accepted that the poems attributed to the Pearl-Poet ought to be read together, this book demonstrates that instead of being analyzed as four distinct, though interconnected, textual entities, they ought to be studied as a single literary unit that produces meaning through its own intricate internal structure. Piotr Spyra defines the epistemological thought of Saint Augustine as an interpretive key which, when applied to the composite text of the manuscript, reveals a fabric of thematic continuity. This book ultimately provides the reader with a clear sense of the poet’s perspective on the nature of human knowledge as well as its moral implications and with a deeper understanding of how the poems bring the theological and philosophical problems of the Middle Ages to bear on the individual human experience.